In what era did the dinosaurs live?  -All the info

In what era did the dinosaurs live? -All the info

In what era did the dinosaurs live? Today we are going to place these unique prehistoric animals in time and you will know in detail when they inhabited planet earth.

The history of the Earth can be encompassed in a great Phanerozoic Eon, which can be divided into 3 great eras:

  • Paleozoic. It begins approximately 540 million years ago and ends 250 million years ago. It begins with the great appearance of the first metazoans (complex animals) in what is known as the “Cambrian Explosion” and ends with the great Permian extinction.
  • Mesozoic. It begins approximately 250 million years ago and ends 65 million years ago. It begins after the Permian extinction and ends with the great Cretaceous extinction.
  • Cenozoic. It begins approximately 65 million years ago and continues to the present day.

When did dinosaurs inhabit the earth?

We are going to detail the different stages of the dinosaurs. These they inhabited the earth and existed for more than 160 million years during the Mesozoic Era.

The Mesozoic era can be divided into three periods: Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous.

  • Triassic. It begins 250 million years ago, after the end of the Paleozoic era and begins the Mesozoic era.
  • Jurassic. It begins 200 million years ago and ends 145 million years ago, being the intermediate period of the Mesozoic Era.
  • Cretaceous. It begins 145 million years ago and ends 65 million years ago, with the great extinction that ended with the “Age of the Dinosaurs”, although it was not the greatest extinction that has occurred on Earth.

Being stages so long in time, which in total add up to almost 195 million years, the great variety of dinosaurs that lived in them is very high, making dinosaurs as well known as the tyrannosaurus rex and the Stegosaurus They were separated in time by almost 90 million years.

The climatic conditions changed a lot between periods, since the Earth was (and is) never still.

In the beginning everything was a single continent: pangeabut with the continental drift, that is, with the movement of the tectonic plates, it was separating the continents first in two (Laurasia and Gondwana) and then it continued with the movement until obtaining the 5 current continents.

The tectonic plate movement explains the great variety of dinosaurs, that although they were from the same group, they could specialize in different environments and thus obtain different species, and it also allows us to explain why we find fossils of the same animal in different parts of the world since in the beginning those zones were united.

Mesozoic Era – The different periods

As we have indicated, the Mesozoic Era could be differentiated into three periods that we are going to present below:

Triassic

It is the first stage. It is the continuation of one of the greatest extinctions that has occurred on our planet, an extinction that extinguished almost 99% of the species, leaving a planet to practically remake.

That 99% of species were eliminated implies that we were on the verge of total extinction, but it also left a wide variety of niches to be colonized again.

In the Permian (last period of the Paleozoic) the most characteristic species were the reptile-mammals, animals that had more in common with the current mammals than with the dinosaurs. The loss of its hegemony meant giving way to a new group to conquer Earth, and the reptiles took over.

leshyk_permian

Mainly small animals survived, which saw a new continent to expand.

The beginning of the Triassic is characterized by a new great radiation of animals of all kinds, both reptiles and very primitive mammals (very different from today’s mammals), and the Triassic did not become an “age of dinosaurs” until its later stages.

The Triassic consists of a dry climatedue to the Pangea supercontinent, caused great differences between coastal areas, somewhat more humid and soft, and the drier and more arid interior.

Although there were “two different climates”, the existence of seasons can be confirmed (albeit extreme changes, something that occurs in temperate regions close to the tropics today). This type of climate allowed the rise of reptiles.

In the Triassic, groups began to appear that have lasted to this day (although they have changed their appearance) such as turtles (turtles) and very primitive crocodiles. It is also from this period Euparkeriaa small reptile that we have talked about in another post, but of great importance.

euparkeria-skeleton-and-silhouette

Euparkeria It was a reptile with a characteristic that made it special, a hip supported by two femurs through a joint that allowed rapid movements below its body, a tendency to bipedalism.

That he Euparkeria had this tendency was a great advance, since we can see that all dinosaurs originally had a bipedal ancestor (if we look at the forelimbs and hindlimbs, we can see that the hindlimbs are longer than the forelimbs, which indicates that developed further into ancestors).

This fleeting bipedalism of the Euparkeria It allowed a quick escape from attacks by larger animals, which evolved until it went from a fleeting bipedalism to a patent one, developing stronger hind limbs to be able to support the animal’s body all the time and not just for a few seconds.

The age of the dinosaurs has begun.

Jurassic

It is the intermediate stage, comprising about 55 million years. At this time, the largest dinosaurs appear, such as the family of the Diplodocusand carnivores like Allosaurus. It is the “age of the giants”.

The beginning of the Jurassic is due to the separation of the supercontinent Pangea in twoone to the north and one to the south, separated by the Tethis Sea, which are Laurasia and Gondwana.

The fact that it separated into two continents allowed the Jurassic period to have more regular climates, similar in a large number of areas, since the coastal areas increased and the internal continental ones decreased, so we went from an arid and dry climate to a more humid and warm, with rains and milder temporary changes.

laurasia-gondwana

This more humid climate allows the rise of the great forestsand with it the appearance of the first angiosperms, the first flowering plants. It supposes the beginning of a displacement of the gymnosperms, plants without flowers that appeared in the Carboniferous (Paleozoic stage).

Although the first basal angiosperms appeared, the rise of large forests was of gymnosperm plants and ferns among the most important.

This hot and humid climate It allowed the dinosaurs to acquire great sizes, they had no limits, dense forests that did not end and the competition between them was predator-prey.

At the same time that the dinosaurs begin to increase in size, they must leave behind the characteristic poikilothermia (cold blood) and look for other habits in order to keep a body of that size active as soon as the sun rises, so many dinosaurs began to develop feathers.

archeopteryx2

Feathers are epidermal structures initially responsible for regulating body temperature efficiently, allowing them to live in both hot and cold environments (although with their respective specializations). That they have subsequently allowed the flight is “collateral damage”.

The oldest feathers of which there is evidence and evidence are filamentous proto-feathers (similar to chicken down) dating from the Jurassic, 155 million years ago, belonging to a specimen of the theropod Anchiornis huxleyia dinosaur before the famous archeopteryx.

The feathers were a structure originated to combat environmental changes and thus survive the seasons.

Cretaceous

The Cretaceous began 145 million years ago, although its beginning is due more to a series of biotic factors than to the separation of continents, as occurred in the two previous periods.

The water levels were the highest, almost all the land was submerged.

There was a great radiation of species within the angiosperm plants, beginning to displace the gymnosperms more; there was a great boom in the radiation of species and also in the dinosaurs, which began to differentiate into true birds.

Fig-6-Reconstruction-of-the-Late-Cretaceous-ecosystem-in-which-the-hadrosaur-dinosaur

At the end of the Cretaceous, before the great extinction occurred, the horizons of today’s continents were already beginning to be observed. Today’s North America and Eurasia would separate from Laurasia, while South America, Africa, Oceania, Antarctica and India would separate from Gondwana.

When the separation of the continents began, although it was still a very slight separation, large internal water masses were formed. Global climate change did not start until the end of the Cretaceous, with the great extinction. There are several hypotheses about it, but here I present the one that is currently believed to have happened.

Actually it was not a single factor that caused the extinction on a large scale of the dinosaurs, but a set of factors that together wiped out much of life on earth.

An increased release of methane from the Earth’s inner layers caused overheating similar to what is currently occurring with climate change, but in greater amounts.

It caused an atmosphere that favored extreme environments and changes. Later, a meteorite of several kilometers arrived that is supposed to have fallen in the current Yucatan Peninsula.

The friction of the meteorite with the atmosphere full of methane caused the sky to literally burn, the fall encouraged an increase in tectonic activity, which from the negative point caused earthquakes but from the positive point favored the separation of the aforementioned continents.

After the great amount of fire and destruction, came a drastic climatic change: a extremely cold weather due to large dust cloud that rose after every point on Earth had burned, starting a “nuclear winter” (these events are the same assumptions behind a possible large-scale nuclear war).

The large dust cloud covered the entire Earth for years, greatly lowering the planet’s temperature.

End of the age of dinosaurs: a new beginning

Without sunlight, the survival of any species was practically zero…unless a few small nocturnal animals survive, and adapted to total darkness they could advance and fight to live. There were herbivores and carnivores, all small.

But, How to live without the oxygen that plants give? Well, there are two important points: not only do plants give oxygen, there are also a series of microorganisms like the Cyanobacteria that provide that oxygen to the environment, and their predecessors were the ones that allowed the entire planet to be oxygenated even before the first fish appeared.

In addition, many plant species have seeds that can enter a dormant stage until conditions are favorable again, and can last for decades and centuries in that state.

Life after the great extinction of the Cretaceous was hard for all active living beings, but thanks to that hardness, survival capacity and the strength to live, they were able to return to Earth the life it had.

If you want more information about all the periods of the history of the earth and the animals that inhabited it in general, we invite you to read: The Ages of the Dinosaurs and the Beginning of Life.

Did humans and dinosaurs coexist?

Did humans and dinosaurs coexist?

Even in television series, the same dinosaurs took center stage and we saw them sitting at the table like any family of homo sapiens.

Fiction has caricatured and at the same time brought dinosaurs closer to the general public, which is very positive, since it implies make people interested for this distant and at the same time exciting world of the Dinosaurs.

Fiction is one thing, reality is another.

Although on the big screen humans and dinosaurs coexist in relative harmony sharing the planet, science and scientific findings tell us that this hypothesis is impossible. This coexistence never took place.

Dinosaurs appeared on Earth a few 250 billion years, the first mammals 200,000 million years later. Moreover, if the Dinosaurs would not have become extinct, it would be very difficult for mammals to have evolved as we have done. Our very existence is based on the decline of the great reptiles, particularly the our adaptation to the environment and especially to our blood.

Hot blood, cold blood

Indeed, dinosaurs like most of thes reptiles are cold-blooded (although there are hypotheses that they are warm-blooded) and were prevented from adapting to the glacial climatewhile the small mammals with warm blood and a small layer of fat on their skins managed to be the survivors and later the masters of the same land.
If coexistence had come to be, at first we would have been nothing more than prey before their eyes, later a competition to eliminate.

Obviously the evolution of our species, of the human being, would have been much slower and of course different. With those great beasts at the gates of your cave, it took a lot of courage to get out.

dragon

Were the Dragons of legends and traditions dinosaurs?

If we look at the folk traditions of a wide variety of peoples spread across the globe, the Dragon appears again and again among their legends, gods or myths. Without going very far in Europe itself we find many examples like these. The knight of St. George, who kills the Dragon in his cave and frees the imprisoned princess, is an image almost known worldwide.

All descriptions through literature or painting given to us of Dragons,is that of ua large winged reptile that normally breathes fire through its mouth . Sometimes of a ferocious intelligence and evil, others like a simple animal in search of food, Humans.

Maybe one day the skeleton of a dragon will be found and we can then have more evidence of the coexistence between human beings and dinosaurs. In fact, whoever wants to live with a dinosaur should visit their grandchildren, the crocodiles.

Theropods – All the info

Theropods – All the info

The age of the dinosaurs shows us the great variety of living beings that have existed throughout time on planet Earth.

They were so diverse and different from each other that in order to recognize them, the scientific field has needed to differentiate them by species or subspecies within different branches.

Given the evident diversity, we cannot talk about all of them extensively because it would be impossible, but we can talk about specific cases such as the theropods.

Various theropod fossils have been found throughout human history, specifically in North America, Greenland, Asia, Africa and Oceania. For practical purposes, theropods have interacted on all current continents, although their greatest concentration of specimens is found in North America.

According to the investigations carried out, theropods existed from the Late Triassic to the Late Cretaceous period between about 225 million and 70 million years ago.

Generally, several specimens have been found with practically all their bones and the task of reconstruction has been easier to find out what they were like. Theropods are one of the species of dinosaurs best known to humans and it is estimated that they are the direct descendants of current birds.

History of theropods

The name translates to “beast foot.” It is an order of dinosaurs that is characterized by have extremely light and hollow limb bones. They are generally bipedal and have sharp, curved claws on their feet.

The name of theropods, it was first mentioned in 1881 by paleontologist O. Charles Marsh. At the taxonomic level, it was taken as a suborder that initially only categorized the Allosauridae family, later more families were included (Megalosauridae, Compsognathidae, Ornithomimidae, Plateosauridae and Anchisauridae…among others) to this suborder, becoming one of the most popular.

Characteristics of theropods

Theropods have a symptom that distinguishes them from the rest of the dinosaurs that surrounded them, and that is that they were bipedal (they walked on two legs) unlike the quadrupeds that walked on all fours.

According to its saw-shaped teeth it indicates that they were carnivorous. Although some were herbivores like Segnosaurus. Records of this dinosaur suborder date from the mid-Triassic and late Cretaceous. They were widely dispersed throughout the world in a wide variety of sizes and shapes.

theropods3

Another notable peculiarity of theropods is that not all specimens needed the same amount of meat since everything depended on their size, height and weight. You could find yourself from tiny specimens to giants like the Spinosaurus or the tyrannosaurus rex.

They were obviously hunters although each species had their own hunting strategies. Some hunted in small packs developing different hunting strategieswhile on the other hand many hunted alone, it is even believed that a good number of these were scavengers.

Theropod groups

It is estimated that there are several groups of theropods but there are specifically two that are the most distinguished, such as:

  • Tetanides
  • Ceratosaurids

Tetanides: in this group there is a wide range of theropod species, among them the tyrannosaurus rex. There are studies that show that they were more agile, intelligent and deadly predators. Ancient specimens of Tetanurans are found from the late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous.

Ceratosaurids: this group contains the first giant-sized theropods, which precede ancient specimens from the Jurassic to the Upper Cretaceous. It is estimated that this group of dinosaurs belonging to this branch were less intelligent but extremely aggressive.

Theropod families

To talk about these magnificent dinosaurs, the best way is to describe the families of dinosaurs that make up the theropods such an important taxonomic order.

Coelophysidae: Fairly primitive dinosaurs, lived in the Triassic period, survived until the early Jurassic. They were generally small and had a long, flexible neck. They were scattered throughout North America, Africa, and Asia. It was discovered in 1998 year.

Zupaysaurus: These dinosaurs lived during the late Triassic and early Jurassic periods. They could measure up to 4 meters long, 1 meter high and weigh up to 2000 grams. It is believed to have been one of the earliest types of theropods, although some scientists believe it was a sauropod.

Dilophosauridae: A family represented by the Dilophosaurus. These had a characteristic semicircular double crest on their heads that helped them during courtship, they were medium-sized, could reach lengths close to 8 meters and weigh half a ton. Remains were found throughout America, China and Antarctica. It is believed that it hunted in groups and that it was a scavenger on many occasions.

Proceratosaurus: They were small dinosaurs, which had an extended crest in what seemed to be a beak, They inhabited the land mainly in the Late Jurassic period.

Ceratosauridae: This family of theropods inhabited the land between the Late Jurassic and the Late Cretaceous. They were characterized by having a horn at the tip of their nose, they could reach average lengths of up to 6 meters.

Abelisauridae: It lived in the Cretaceous period in the so-called Gondwana territory. They could reach an average of 5-9 meters in length. The largest of this family was the Abelisauridae Carnotaurus. His name means Lizard of Abel. in reference to a paleontologist who discovered the first genus of this family.

Spinosauridae: This family of dinosaurs belongs to the Tetanurae branch. They inhabited the land in the middle Jurassic and the end of the Cretaceous. Their most peculiar characteristic is that they have a snout like that of a crocodile, which is why scientists have suggested that some individuals live in water. The smallest of this family was the irritator and the largest was undoubtedly the Spinosaurus.

Allosauridae: The family of dinosaurs lived about 155-145 million years ago between the Upper Jurassic and the Lower Cretaceous, widely distributed throughout North America, Asia and Europe. These being the best predators of their era, far surpassing the Megalosauridae and Ceratosauridae.

Carcharodontosauridae: The great theropods. Name that refers to the fact that they had teeth equal to those of a shark. His remains were found in Africa, Europe, America and Asia. They had a slightly elongated face. They went together to the family Spinosauridae the great predators of Gondwana.

Neovenatoridae: A family of large carnivorous dinosaurs that lived in the Cretaceous period, approximately 130-70 million years ago. These being a branch of the Allosauroidea family. These were characterized by having a body adapted to reach high speeds, making them fearsome predators.

Dryptosaurus: This is one of the primitive ancestors of the Tyrannosauridae. This family is represented by a single genus, of which only a few bones are known. They lived during the last Cretaceous period approximately 75-70 million years ago.

Tyrannosauridae: This group includes all the relatives of the fearsome Tyrannosaurus rex, and this one. They appeared in the early Cretaceous, and survived the mass extinction of the dinosaurs. They had a huge head, tiny front legs, but a giant tail, which helped them keep their balance while walking.

Ornithomimidae: A family of theropods that lived 100-65 million years, Distributed in Asia and North America. Unlike most theropods, many researchers point out that these were herbivores, characterized by having an elongated neck and a toothless beak-shaped mouth. In fact, it is very similar to birds.

Some curiosities about theropods

  1. A big number of genera of dinosaurs belonging to the order of theropods had feathersfully proven through the evidence of its fossils, further reinforcing the idea that today’s birds have these ancient reptiles as ancestors.
  2. There is a belief that some clever dinosaurs especially some theropods, such as the dromaeosaurids or the Troodontids. But the truth is that these reptiles do not even exceed the intelligence of some mammals today.
  3. Many of us think that dinosaurs are able to roar like they do in the moviesHowever, it should be known that in order to roar in this way it is necessary to have a pharynx, an organ that is not present in dinosaurs, so they surely could not roar as they do in the movies, on the contrary it is believed that they could squawk and slight noises like crocodiles today.
  4. The dinosaur largest theropod that ever lived on land it was the Spinosaurus, with an approximate size of 17 meters, followed by the Carcharodontosaurus with approximately 13 meters as well as the giganotosaurus. Without leaving behind another big one like the saurophaganax.
  5. On the other hand we have to the smallest theropod that has been found is the Compsognathus, with only one meter in length and about 40 to 50 centimeters high. being truly a small dinosaur.
All About Dinosaur Fossils

All About Dinosaur Fossils

If today we can know what the dinosaurs were like, what types there were, what their habits were or directly how they became extinct, it was all thanks to the dinosaur fossils.

So, as without them this blog would practically not exist and nobody would know anything about its existence, today we are going to tell you all about these prehistoric bones.

Let’s travel back in time, specifically millions of years ago, thanks to the dinosaur remains available to science today.

What are dinosaur fossils?

The fossils are all the ancient remains of dinosaurs. When a dinosaur died, its body was devoured by other scavengers, leaving only the remains that could not provide any nutrients to said scavengers, such as bones, which are the most common fossils.

Besides dinosaur bonesthere are other very varied fossils such as the footprintsthe eggs or even the teeth. Of course, these three types of remains are much more difficult to find because their conservation through thousands of years of antiquity is more difficult than that of bones.

Unfortunately, Many of the dinosaurs that existed will never be found or known because all trace of them has been lost over the years. In fact, the chances of finding a fossil in good condition are very low, in addition to the fact that most are in such a state of deterioration that it is very difficult to obtain reliable information about them.

Even many times the parts real dinosaur fossils, are completed with synthetic parts. All in order to give the skeleton a more structured shape and understand its physiognomy a little more.

At least in Spain We are lucky to have, compared to other countries, quite a few dinosaur fossils, so if you want to see them live, all you have to do is read the article we have linked you to and visit their locations.

dinosaur teeth

Types of Dinosaur Fossils

Let’s talk a little in depth about the four types of fossil dinosaur bones that exist, which are the most common to find and what kind of information scientists extract from them.

  • Bones: It is the hardest fossil and the one that most resists the passage of time, since it resists decomposition much better than soft parts, which decompose easily. For this reason, they are the ones we see the most in museums, in addition to being the most spectacular because they can form the entire body of a dinosaur.
  • Teeth: behind the bones, they are what is most found due to their hardness. Although most had different teeth, almost all of them are pointed and sharp in order to hunt other dinosaurs or crush vegetation in the case of herbivores.
  • Footsteps: after the hard parts are the most common to find. The problem is that it is not possible to know exactly which species has made each footprint if we do not find other fossils that give more clues, but at least aspects such as the behavior or distribution of the species throughout the Earth can be known thanks to the footprints. .
  • Eggs and nests: every dinosaur egg or nest that is found is practically a relic, since it is extremely difficult for any to have survived thousands of years. The eggs are very similar to those of birds, although they have varied shapes and sizes that can be up to 30 centimeters long or as thin and small as a pencil. On very few occasions there are even embryos inside the eggs.
  • Other fossils: other parts of the anatomy of the dinosaurs such as the skin, tail, claws or crests are even more difficult to find and their findings can be counted almost on the fingers of one hand. They are usually found attached to some type of rock that, luckily, has kept these remains over the years.

dinosaur eggs

Paleontology as a science that studies fossils

The remains could never have been found, treated and cared for so that we would have them in museums if it were not for the paleontologists.

And you will ask yourself, but what exactly is paleontology? Well basically it’s the science that studies extinct animals in the prehistoric era of planet Earth.

paleontology

paleontologists are in charge of examining all the fossil remains that appear, taking care of them and extracting them as carefully as possible so as not to lose any information from them. In addition, they are in charge of carrying out the reconstruction of the skeletons of the dinosaurs that we see in museums, so their work is practically like that of an artist.

If you love fossils and you are a fan of dinosaurs, without a doubt we recommend training in this profession, since there is no other that makes you closer to this extinct species.

Dinosaur fossils found in the world

can really be found fossil information in any country. since the dinosaurs were widely distributed throughout the world taking into account that the continents were united in the beginning, so we can find fossil remains throughout the world, not being more let’s review a little where fossils are found around the world .

  1. Venezuela: This is not a country very characterized by its fossil wealth, however, recently one of the most important finds in this countryit is the Tachiraptor admirabilis, the fossils found correspond to a small dinosaur of the order of theropods that dates back to the primary Jurassic approximately 201 million years ago.
  2. Colombia: This country is not characterized by being very rich in fossils, in fact the first fossil remains found were in 1990 and was recently described in 2015. This dinosaur was named Padillasaurus which was a Brachiosaurus, the fossil remains found were a pair of vertebrae.
  3. Argentina: In contrast to Colombia, Argentina is one of the most important countries when it comes to fossil finds. There are many fossils that have been found in this country. In this territory, one of the largest dinosaurs in the world, the great Argentinosaurus, was found.
  4. United States: The United States has also been an important area in terms of fossil finds, especially in its arid and mountainous areas, one of the most recent and important finds was made in California, where in the middle of a construction of a hydroelectric, remains of prehistoric animals were found; that although they are not the remains of dinosaurs in themselves, the large number of remains found ranging from Smilodons, sloths, camels and many remains of rodents is still impressive. Species very different from the current ones and which are believed to be the ancestors of those we see today.
  5. China: It has always been an important place when it comes to finding fossils, in fact recently a new dinosaur has been found which was found to have feathers and small wings, said dinosaur is related to Velociraptor and was named as Zhenyuanlong.
  6. Spain: Although long ago it was not a country with fossil riches, in recent times about 7 new species have been found dinosaur in that country. Ranging from the Concavenator, Arenysaurus, Titanosaurs, Arcanosaurus…etc. In addition, it is a cave where a large number of fossil remains of prehistoric animals were found.
  7. Germany: Another very characteristic area where fossils have been found is GermanyIn fact, one of the most recent and most interesting discoveries was that of the remains of a Megalosaurus hatchling. Remains that undoubtedly made a great contribution to what is known about these dinosaurs and all in general.
  8. Canada: Like other countries, it is a source of paleontological wealth, taking into account that said territory in the age of the dinosaurs was of a tropical climate, far from being a cold zone as it is now. One of the most recent discoveries in that country was that of a new species of dinosaur named Acrotholuswhich is considered one of the rarest dinosaurs that existed on earth.
  9. Mexico: In this country lies one of the evidence that supports the extinction of the dinosaurs by a meteorite, this theory states that a meteorite fell on earth and marked the end of the dinosaurs. The evidence would be the Chicxulub Crater, located north of the Yucatan Peninsula. Apart from this, a large number of dinosaur species have also been found.
Big dinosaurs and Little dinosaurs

Big dinosaurs and Little dinosaurs

The dinosaurs that we all know are always gigantic, of incredible sizes and with an impressive presence that scares and amazes us at the same time. But… Did you know that all dinosaurs weren’t that big?

The size differences between the dinosaurs were so great that you could find one that was the size of a pigeon to another that was as tall as a 6 or 7-storey building over 30 meters tall.

To get to know them all, today we are going to examine several of the smallest dinosaurs that ever existed and as many of the largest that you will surely already know.

Big Dinosaurs

There has been no animal larger in history than the dinosaur if we rule out the blue whale, which could be similar in size to many of them and even equal the largest.

Below you can see the three largest dinosaur specimens that have been found. Even in the recreations you can appreciate the impressive size they had.

AmphicoeliasAmphicoelias, the giant dinosaur

It is the largest dinosaur that has been found in all of history. Its estimated size is about 40-60 meters and doubtless there is none approaching it in the whole species. This gigantic dinosaur is part of the diplocid sauropod order, it is estimated that it inhabited what is now North America and became extinct at the end of the Jurassic. How could such a large dinosaur become extinct?

gatesaurPuertasaurus, the most unknown

The Puertasaurus is a very unknown dinosaur, of which only four vertebrae have been found in the whole world. Of course, these vertebrae measure 1.7 meters wide and 1 meter long, so their estimated height according to calculations and studies is up to 40 meters. Belonging to the order of the Saurischia; It inhabited the land at the end of the Cretaceous in what we now know as South America.

turiasaurTuriasaurio, the Spanish dinosaur

Several dinosaurs have been found in Spain and this is probably the most important of all. As its name suggests, it was found in Teruel and has the honor of being the largest dinosaur ever found in all of Europe. It was about the size 37 meters. In addition, you can see an impressive recreation of this dinosaur in Teruel at the Dinópolis. We recommend you go see it if you can because it is brilliantly represented and you will love it.

SauroposeidonSauroposeidon, the lake and large dinosaur

Without a doubt it was a particularly striking dinosaur due to its large size, they could reach 35-40 meters in length. The neck of this dinosaur could reach up to 10 m in length. As for the length of its body from head to tail, it measured approximately 30 meters more or lessand his head could rise about 18 meters from the ground which allowed him to reach the tops of the trees.

supersaurusThe Supersaurus, the super lizard

It was a dinosaur that lived in the late Jurassic, described for the first time in 1985. It is considered one of the largest diplodocids. The supersaurus could measure up to 34 meters long, it could also reach heights of up to 16 meters and weigh about 40 tons. Despite its large size, it can be said that it had a relatively small skull, very characteristic of dinosaurs belonging to the Saurischia order.

SpinosaurusSpinosaurus, the giant carnivore

Although we are talking about large herbivorous dinosaurs, in this list of giant dinosaurs we also have carnivorous dinosaurs. in this case the Spinosaurus. One of the most feared predators of the Cretaceous. It had a mouth like that of a crocodile, it had a spine on its back that had the appearance of a huge sail. Said sail could reach a height of 2 meters; its height in general could be about 6 meters approximatelyAs for its length, it could easily reach 17 meters in length and weigh 4 tons.

ArgentinosaurusThe Argentinosaurus, The Giant of the South

It inhabited the earth about 97 million years ago in the Upper Cretaceous. The Argentinosaurus stands out for being the heaviest of all with about 160 tons of weight. What’s more, It could reach a length of 40 meters and a height of up to 16 meters. We are certainly talking about a great dinosaur. Many times it has been pointed out that it is the largest dinosaur that could exist, however, as you have seen in this article, it was not the largest.

FutalognkosaurusFutalognkosaurus, the chief of the giants

In 2007, the remains of what would be the largest dinosaur in history, the Futalognkosaurus, were found in Argentina. According to the researchers. This dinosaur lived about 87 million years ago. The length of these dinosaurs was approximately 32-34 meters, it is estimated that they weighed about 80 tons. The first remains were found in 2000 on the shores of Lake Barreales, and later, scientists have found bones of the back, neck and legs.

TarbosaurusTarbosaurus, the giant predator

Tarbosaurus is an extinct genus of large, carnivorous and fearsome dinosaurs (carnosaur superfamily). this dinosaur It could measure about 12 meters long, a height of up to 4 metersIt is estimated that it could weigh about 5 tons. It lived on earth about 70 million years ago in the Cretaceous period. Undoubtedly one of the largest predators that could exist.

brachiosaurusBrachiosaurus, a large and heavy dinosaur

In a pseudopod dinosaur, it lived about 150 million years ago in the Jurassic. Remains of this giant have been found in Africa, Europe and North America. It is estimated that this dinosaur could reach heights of up to about 13 meters and reach a length of 25 meters. As for its weight, it is estimated that it was approximately 40 tons. It really was a huge dinosaur in all its dimensions.

paralyzeParalititan, a great family a great dinosaur

In this list of large dinosaurs, we must also highlight the Paralititan, which is a dinosaur that belongs to the sauropod group of the titanosaur family. This dinosaur lived in the middle Cretaceous about 94 million years ago. From its size we must emphasize that it could reach about 30 meters in length and weigh about 60 tons. It had a relatively long neck and fed on the high leaves of trees.

DiplodocusDiplodocus, the long-necked dinosaur

This dinosaur is part of the diplodocid sauropods, it inhabited the earth in the upper Jurassic period about 153 million years ago. Of these dinosaurs, it should be noted that they had a relatively long neck and tail with respect to their body, which made this reptile less heavy than any other large dinosaur on this list. with only approximately 25 tons. About its length it is estimated that it could reach about 33 meters.

BarosaurusBarosaurus, a great dinosaur

A sauropod of the Diplodocus family, habit in the Upper Jurassic about 150 million years ago. His remains were found in the famous Morrison Formation. The same allowed estimating its size. His measurements are very considerable. Getting to measure about 23 meters in lengthAs for its height, it is believed that it could reach 7 meters high and about its weight it is estimated that it could weigh about 23 tons.

ApatosaurusApatosaurus, the clueless dinosaur

One of the family of diplodocus sauropods, this great animal lived in the Jurassic period 155 million years ago, its name means “clueless reptile”. From this we can highlight its large tail and neck; that allowed him reach lengths between 22 to 26 meterson the other hand, could reach 5 meters high and weigh about 25 tons, becoming one of the heaviest dinosaurs that ever existed.

Small Dinosaurs

The dinosaurs, for the most part, were more abundant in small sizes than in large ones. In fact, these were smaller in size than a cat or small dog might be.

Can you imagine a dinosaur with the size of a chiguagua? Well there were 🙂

liaoxiornisLiaoxiornis, the dwarf dinosaur

Probably the smallest dinosaur in existence, it lived during the Lower Cretaceous and was first described in 1999 by Hou and Chen of the Nanjing Institute of Paleontology. This dinosaur is surely the smallest ever found. Its size was 6 centimeters and it had a size, as you can see in the photo, similar to that of a small bird.

EpidemicEpidexipteryxxipteryx, the “ancestor” of the peacock

This dinosaur had a quality very similar to peacocks: it used its feathers to court and attract females. In fact, as you can see in the drawing below, it has a similar shape to the peacock, so who knows if it could be a very distant ancestor of the same. Its size was 25 centimetersalthough much of this was thanks to its long feathers.

MinmiMinmi, the tiny battleship

This dinosaur found in Australia, is part of the ornithischians order of the ankylosaur family. who lived approximately 113 million years ago in the mid-Cretaceous period. It is characterized by being herbivorous and generally fed on small plants. Some research indicates that it could reach a weight of 300 kilograms and lengths of up to 3 meters.

CompsognathusCompsognathus, a small carnivore

This animal is considered the smallest carnivorous dinosaur that ever existed. It lived about 150 million years ago in the Upper Jurassic. They generally feed on small lizards and insects. From its size we can say that it was only 1 meter long, 40 centimeters tall and it is estimated that it could weigh about 3 kilograms. It must be said that he was a good hunter and that he ran at a great speed.

LesothosaurusLesothosaurus, the bipedal lizard

This small dinosaur was an ornithischian that lived in the lower Jurassic, about 200 million years ago. The first remains found of this small dinosaur were in Africa. It is described as a small lizard, very similar to the current ones but which differs from these in its bipedal gait. Regarding its size there is no exact databut it is estimated that it could reach a height of 90 centimeters.

PisanosaurusPisanosaurus, the only one of the family

This dinosaur is the only representative of the Pisanosaurus family. It lived approximately 220 million years ago at the end of the Triassic period, it was herbivorous in nature. From this small dinosaur we can highlight that its weight was approximately 6 kilograms, with only 1 meter long and 40 centimeters high. Although these measurements may vary since they are an estimate based on a fossil found that was not complete.

microceratopsMicroceratop, a nice dinosaur

It is a dinosaur very similar to the triceratops, differing in general terms in its size. In fact, both belong to the Ceratopsia family; family that is distinguished by having horns and a bony plate on its neck. It lived in the Upper Cretaceous about 70 million years ago. As far as your measurements are concerned it is estimated that it could reach 76 centimeters in heightAs for its length, it is calculated that it could reach a length of 60 centimeters and weighed between 8 and 10 kilograms.

wannanosaurusWannanosaurus, a small but mighty helmet

It is a small prehistoric reptile belonging to the Pachycephalosaurus, which lived in the Upper Cretaceous about 80 million years ago. His remains were found in China and correspond to a small skull, jaw and limb parts.. With these fossil remains it was possible to estimate the size of this dinosaur, reaching the conclusion that it could reach up to 1 meter in length.

EuparkeriaEuparkeria, one of the first dinosaurs

This small prehistoric animal lived in the Lower Triassic about 250 million years ago. Belonging to the family of euparkéridos. It was carnivorous and fed on small animals, Its measurements are estimated to be 1 meter long, about 30 centimeters high and could weigh approximately 8 kilograms.. Some scientists point out that it was one of the first dinosaurs to inhabit the earth and gave rise to the era of these great reptiles.

protoavisProtoavis, the test of the evolution

His finding was controversial for the paleontologist world. Since the discovery of him served as evidence to refute the theory that birds evolved from dinosaurs. Which sparked a lot of debate. He lived in the Upper Triassic about 225 million years ago. As regards its size it is known that it could reach lengths of between 30 to 35 centimeters.

LagosuchusLagosuchus, the lizard dinosaur

It lived about 250 million years ago in the Middle Triassic, it was herbivorous and fed on ferns. It belonged to the family of lagosuchids. Their fossil remains are not very complete, however, with them it was possible to classify them and estimate their size. Its dimensions are estimated at 60 centimeters long40 tall and weighing close to 800 grams.

MicropachycephalosaurusMicropachycephalosaurus, the one with the armor on the head

It inhabited the earth 75 million years ago in the Upper Cretaceous, It belongs to the ornithischians order. It was characterized by having a bony helmet on top of its skull that allowed it to fight predators and other males. Its measurements are calculated to be 1 meter long, 30 meters high and 10 kilograms in weight. A very small size so surely his helmet was of little use when facing other predators.

LiaoningsaurusLiaoningsaurus, a bunker from top to bottom

A small representative of the ankylosaur family lived about 122 million years ago in the lower Cretaceous period. This small ankylosaurus, unlike many of its giant relatives, had armor that also covered its lower part as well as its upper part. It is believed that it could reach 34 centimeters in height. Despite its small size, the truth could very well defend itself from predators.

EpidendrosaurusEpidendrosaurus, the smallest dinosaur that ever lived

This is definitely the smallest dinosaur that existed on earth. It belonged to the Maniraptor family, many scientists point out that it most likely would have had feathers. This little guy lived in the Upper Jurassic about 147 million years ago. It is estimated that could reach 15 centimeters in height onlytheir weight could be compared.

Cloning Dinosaurs – Myth or Near Reality?

Cloning Dinosaurs – Myth or Near Reality?

Clone dinosaursthat great desire and experiment that would lead us to have the real experience of being able to share the earth with those giants that we admire so much. Can you imagine it!

And it is that just as the famous Dolly the sheep was cloned, which was talked about so much in its day, why not do it with the dinosaurs and clone them so that they can live with us?

But before we go crazy and have to run away in front of a T-Rex, we should ask ourselves if it would be ethically and morally correct, a question that has been debated since the sheep was cloned regarding cloning human beings; which would not devour us as soon as they were seen, for example.

Surely you were expecting another reasoning… I’m giving you that right now and it is that perhaps before continuing to advance in research, which is already being carried out, on how dinosaurs could be cloned and brought back to life, questions would have to be answered What:

  • Why should dinosaurs be cloned? It would be the fastest way to end our reign as a species and we would become part of the food pyramid.
  • Where would they fit in today’s food chain? It is clear that at the top, let’s see who faces a Velociraptor, for example, that as soon as you take two steps you already have it on your back. Come on! Not even Usain Bolt, being the fastest runner in the world, would have anything to do with one of these.
  • What would they give us? Yes, what would they bring us, man does nothing if he is not going to get a clear benefit in return, in this case it could be considered that it would be the “ego of having brought the dinosaurs to life”, but what would happen afterwards? How would we keep them and where?
  • And since we are talking about cloning Why not clone other recently extinct species that were from our era? This would perhaps make much more sense and they would return to their space and mission, of which we would surely not be in such danger as to be the next on the menu and therefore the next to become extinct.

I could go on asking many more questions, from which I would not come up with a positive and, above all, convincing reason, justifying the fact of bringing these giants back to life. Because what is clear is that the admiration felt for them is not an objective and sufficient reason to clone them, or do you think it is?

And I don’t think that as a justification it could be valid that if dinosaurs were cloned, many of the suppositions and speculations about dinosaurs would be confirmed or not confirmed, such as: if they were warm-blooded or cold-blooded, how long they lived, how cared for their young, if they were migratory animals, etc.

The study of dinosaur cloning

The fact is that perhaps it is not so far from being able to clone dinosaurs, but not as you are thinking.

Let’s go to the beginning of the studies

A few years ago in North America, paleontologists discovered a Tyrannosaurus Rex skeleton. While looking for all the bones for reconstruction, they were very surprised to find in the femur some soft tissues that were not fossilized. Tissues with which DNA samples could be extracted, with which almost all the genetic information necessary for cloning would be obtained.

Of course, considering that only T-Rex tissue has been found, only this one could be cloned. The rest of the species found are fossils, which implies that more than 90% of the genetic information of each one of them is lost and therefore they could not be cloned.

Although studies continue to be carried out to clone dinosaurs and make one of humanity’s dreams come true, it has been discovered that DNA has a half life of about 521 years. Taking into account that the T-Rex found lived about 75 billion years ago, the aforementioned option is ruled out.

In the same way, the option of extracting blood from a mosquito fossilized in amber is ruled out, as happened in the Jurassic Park movie.

According to the scientist Bryan Nelson, in addition to the “short life” of DNA, many coincidences would have to occur at the same time for it to be carried out (I am referring to extracting the blood of the mosquito) because it would be necessary to find in perfect conditions of fossilization a female mosquito that had just sucked blood and that just with a full belly remained inside the amber, it fossilized and was later found, in addition to finding out what species or species is the blood that it was digesting at that time… come on! That it is easier to see all the planets aligned, followed by a solar or lunar eclipse.

So goodbye to the idea of ​​living a Jurassic Park and going to visit a T-Rex in the zoo. Can you imagine it? Everyone there throwing legs of lamb, hehe!

But we continue with the studies and advances on cloning after this little T-Rex joke… Although dinosaurs cannot be cloned as they were, at least with the means available today, that option must be ruled out, yes, they continue to study and consider how to clone dinosaurs, but this time the cloning would be from their heirs the birds and the other great species to clone would be the mammoths. I’ll explain how to do it below.

Mammoth cloning

Mammoths belong to the Asian elephant family and it would be with the help of these and a method of genetic manipulation called “CRISPR” that the mammoth would come to life.

Logically it would not be exactly the same, because as we say, the intervention of the current Asian elephant is necessary, so it would be more like this one. Yes indeed, would have the most recognizable characteristics of mammoths such as thick fur, adipose layer and small ears.

The idea of cloning the mammoth is to integrate it into a natural park located in Siberia known as “Pleistocene Park”where the conditions of the Ice Age have been recreated and where there are already bison, horses, musk oxen, reindeer, elk and other similar species.

And how would the mammoth be cloned?

Well, before answering the question, I am going to explain to you what is the CRISPR technology with which this cloning would be carried out.

CRISPR stands for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, in Spanish “Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. This means that With this technique we can “edit or correct” the genome of any cellincluding the human. Its discoverer was Francis Mojica, a researcher at the University of Alicante; although it was two French women who received the Princess of Asturias Award for research in 2015 for the development of this technology.

In summary, so that we all understand, With this genetic technology, the frozen cells of mammoths would be manipulated and an elephant would be fertilized.hence what I said earlier that it would not be exactly a mammoth because it would inherit genes and characteristics of the current elephant.

If they dare to carry it out, it is because successful tests have already been carried out with frozen mouse cells, carried out by the Japanese Teruhiko Wakayama in 2008.

It would be this Japanese researcher along with an international team of researchers who would finally carry out such a feat.

The fact is that the date for the first mammoth was raised in 2016 and until now I have not heard anything about there being a mammoth in Siberia. Everything is that in this year 2017 give the great news. If so, it would be the beginning of the awakening of another 22 species that are frozen, among them the saber-toothed tiger or the Smilodon Fatalis.

Clone a dinosaur from birds

The idea of ​​cloning a dinosaur from birds comes nothing more and nothing less than by Jack Hornerone of the most prestigious paleontologists in the world who belongs to the University of the State of Montana.

Jack Horner inspired, assisted and actively participated in all 4 Steven Spielberg Jurassic Park films. He is the one who indicated at all times what the dinosaurs were like and how they acted in reality, except for some “small” changes, such as the feathers of the Velociraptors that “disappeared” and some other detail that conflicted with the plot of the film.

The fact is that now it has been proposed that the dinosaurs be recovered from the birds, as these are the direct descendants.

The objective is that from the embryo of a chicken and through genetic engineering find the genes that would turn it into a dinosaur.

turn a chicken into a dinosaur

Well, at first it would not be a dinosaur as such, but it would be a totally new species that Horner baptizes as the “chickensaur” or the “dinochick”.

I don’t know which of the two names to stick with so that when it is named it doesn’t seem like a total tease. Because it is true that they are studying it and that they have already found the gene for the hen to have teeth; now they are looking for the gene that would give them claws instead of wings and finally they would look for the gene for size.

And let it be known that they are not modifying genes but are reactivating atavistic genes from the DNA for them to show up again. It is like going back in evolution and from there finding the dinosaur that all birds carry within in their DNA; although in this case, if the hen has been chosen, it is because, in addition to being a common bird, its entire genome is perfectly known.

It is assumed that if all goes well by the end of this year or the beginning of 2018 we will meet the first “chickensaur”, which in principle will be the same size as the conventional chicken except that it will have teeth and claws.

If not, then we will have to wait about two more years to see it. All this according to the forecasts of Horner himself, who also stated that the next challenge will be to make it bigger and then, well, “resurrect” some theropod, which after all are the ancestors of birds, all of them walked on their hind legs, and yes, all of them were carnivores, although according to him, tyrannosaurs or velociraptors that run around freely are not going to be cloned.

Conclution

If reality is stranger than fiction on many occasions, haven’t we learned anything from all the Jurassic Park movies or from the series about dinosaurs that suddenly appear in our time through a portal that mysteriously opens and ends up wreaking havoc?

Really not? Look, everything starts out very nice, like the research that is being carried out now, whether it be the “chickensaur” or the mammoth, but then everything goes wrong. Indeed, there is the theory of chaos, the butterfly effect or the simple logic of how you are going to care for and raise a hen with teeth and claws?

If you saw the last installment of Jurassic World when they talked about the hybrid dinosaur created from nothing, one of the questions they asked was “Does the animal know what it is and what it is for?”

And following this logic, would you know how to take care of something that you don’t know why you created it? Do you know what and how a chicken with teeth and claws will evolve into? And if you want to make it bigger, first ask yourself why and then how it will affect you.

Dogs, for example, have been selected to make the most of their best qualities, in addition to distinguishing them even more between beauty dogs or working dogs, but at all times we know and know that they are dogs and what they are for and what they are for. More importantly, we know how to take care of them.

These are such basic questions that scientists should ask themselves first, and if not, they should be asked by the people around them, right?

… And you do you think?